Makarenko Volodymyr (1943)
A Ukrainian artist-nonconformist. Born in the village of Novo-Pushkarivka, Dnipropetrovsk region. In 1963 he graduated from Dnipropetrovsk Art School, the workshop of Y. Kalashnyk. For his diploma thesis "In the blue land" painted in the manner of "geometric realism" he was accused of formalism, the painting was destroyed and the artist was deprived of the opportunity to study in Ukraine. Then he moved to Leningrad, where in 1963 he entered the monumental faculty of the High School of Monumental Art named after V. Mukhina. In Leningrad, he studied privately in the studios of N. Altman and P. Kondratiev. He was in friendly terms with such artists as M. Shemyakin, E. Rukhina, V. Mishyn, E. Yesaulenko, V. Yankilevskyy, O. Nemukhin and A. Tselkov. In 1969 he graduated and received a diploma of a monumental artist. The same year he became a member of an informal organization of nonconformist artists, known in the West as "Petersburg group". In 1973 he was forced to leave Leningrad and move to Tallinn, where he quickly joined the literary circles and participated in the group exhibitions with such Estonian masters as M. Vint, R. Lyapin, M. Kormashov. In 1974 together with F. Gumeniuk, V. Sazonov and V. Strelnikov he took part in the exhibition of Ukrainian artists-nonconformist in the Moscow apartment of the Sychevs. In 1976 there was his first solo exhibition in Paris in the Hardy gallery. Also in 1976 his works were exhibited in one of the best exhibitions of the artists-nonconformist in the West - La Peinture russe contemporaine at the Palais des Congress in Paris. Living in Tallinn, he worked as a stoker, as he refused to join the Union of artists. He painted in a small workshop and sometimes received orders for illustrations of magazines and newspapers. From 1973 till 1980 each year he applied papers to emigrate to France, and only in 1981 he received the permission and moved to Paris. He held exhibitions in Paris, Toronto, Winnipeg, Stockholm, Metz, Chicago, New York, Washington, Dortmund, Bremen, Toulouse, Lille and Baden-Baden. He cooperates with such galleries as Galerie Saint-Leger (France), Turm-Galerie-Bonn (Germany), Galerie Noordeinde (the Netherlands), Alla Rogers Gallery and Artfira Gallery (the USA), KUMF Gallery (Canada). In 1987 he received the Silver Medal of Paris for the artistic achievement (Medaille d'Argent de la Ville de Paris pour la contribution au developpement de l'Art de France). He lives and works in Paris. In 1990 the art historian J. Р C. Marcade in the preface to the catalogue devoted to the exhibition of V. Makarenko in Paris in the Modern Art Gallery identified the artistХs style as "Orphism" where the light is the main formative element.