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Graham John (Dombrovskyi Ivan Gratsianovych, 1881 - 1961)

An American modernist painter of Russian origin. Born in Kyiv. He graduated from the Imperial Lyceum, and the Law Faculty of Kyiv University (1911). In the 1910Хs he lived in Moscow, was fond of modern painting and met with M. Larionov, D. Burlyuk and V. Mayakovskyi. During 1914 - 1917 he fought in the Archangel Michael Cavalry Brigade and was awarded the three George Crosses. During the civil war in 1918 he was arrested for his counterrevolutionary activities and sentenced to death, but was released by order of F. Dzerzhinsky. In 1920 emigrated to Paris, and in 1921 moved to New York. In 1927 became an American citizen and changed his name to John Graham. He studied at "Student Art League" (in the class of the well-known realist D. Sloan), where he met with the sculptor and painter O. Calder and B. Newman. At the end of the 1920Хs he became one of the founders of the abstract-expressionist movement in the American painting, was a member of D. ReedХs Club, of the  Society " The Ten" (New York) and "Friends of Art" (Baltimore). In 1925 moved to Baltimore, where he joined the group of artists-modernists. In the later years he collaborated with the New York avant-garde artists, and acted not only as an artist but as an impresario as well. Thus, in 1942 he organized the exhibition "French and American abstract art", where the works of P. Picasso, G. Braque and H. Matisse were exhibited along  with the paintings of young American artists. His solo exhibitions were held in Baltimore (1926), Paris (1928, 1930), New York (1929, 1931, 1941, 1945, 1954). He participated in the exhibition of Russian art in Wilmington (1932) and the exhibition "Abstract Art of America" in New York (1935). Author of theoretical articles, lectures on modernism in art and the book "The System and the Dialectics in Art." The works are represented in the Metropolitan Museum, the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. A large collection of his works is stored in the Philips Memorial Gallery in Washington.